GTAP Research: Energy
GTAP Environmental and Energy Research
Many economic analyses of climate policies have used computable general equilibrium (CGE) models of the global economy. This class of model permits the analysis of policy impacts while considering all the substitutions and exchanges that occur in the global economy. The GTAP Model and data base at Purdue has been used extensively to evaluate costs of abatement and to assess the spill-over effects of greenhouse gases (GHG) abatement policies via international trade and sectoral interaction. During the past decade, the Global Trade Analysis Project has filled an important need in the integrated assessment (IA) community by providing regular updates of world-wide input-output and bilateral trade data sets with significant disaggregation of regions and sectors, plus energy volume data. GTAP has successfully integrated global energy data sets - in particular, extended energy balances and energy prices and taxes, compiled by the International Energy Agency (IEA) - into the GTAP input-output tables and bilateral trade data (first implementation). With its data base now covering inputs/outputs and bilateral trade of 57 commodities (and producing industries) and 113 countries/regions, GTAP is able to capture broad sectoral interactions within domestic economies and international trade effects as well.
Recently, growing research demands for integrated assessment (IA) of climate change issues and bio-fuels have motivated construction of data bases and models related to GHG emissions, Land use, and Biofuels which can be used with CGE models.
Based on the GTAP energy volume data, we further estimated the CO2 emissions by fuel and by user for each country/region. This gives more accurate estimates of CO2 emission coefficients, which is essential in the derivation of marginal abatement costs - one of the key factors in the global market of emissions trading. In addition to the GTAP energy data sets, the GTAP-E model has been developed to better describe the behavior of energy consumers in the face of higher energy prices. For example, taxes on CO2 emissions would prompt energy consumers to use less-polluting energy, such as natural gas as opposed to coal. In addition, GTAP-E also allows for analyses of the "carbon leakage" effect and global emissions trading.
With funding from EPA, we are currently extending the GTAP Data Base further to include non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions - CH4, N2O, and F-gases. Emissions of these gases are linked to the underlying economic drivers of emissions - mostly agriculture. In this EPA project, we also aim to further extend the GTAP Data Base to allow it to support analyses of the linkages between land use changes and net GHG emissions from agriculture and forestry. We develop a new GTAP-based model - named GTAPE-AEZ -- to illustrate how the GHG emissions from agricultural and forestry activities could be integrated into the standard GTAP Model or other similar CGE models.
Growing research demands for integrated assessment of GHGs issues also motivated construction of a Data Base of land use and GHG emissions for use with CGE models. This project, funded by the Methane and Sequestration Branch of the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), aims to further extend the GTAP Data Base to fill the gap that links land use changes and GHGs emissions from agriculture and forestry. The extended GTAP Data Base covers major GHGs from all sources, with a special focus on GHG emissions related to changes in land use and management practices in agriculture and forestry (e.g., deforestation and afforestation). The EPA sponsored project also identifies a methodological approach to integrate GHGs emissions from agricultural and forestry activities into the standard GTAP Model. Cost features of alternative GHG abatement technologies are also incorporated into the model.
Further Land Use research may also be found on the GTAP website.
Most recently the GTAP Model and data base have been extended to improve the treatment of biofuel by products and accurately represent global land use. The modified model, nick-named GTAP-BIO (Birur et al., 2008) further modifies the GTAP-E model (Burniaux and Truong, 2002 and modified by McDougall and Golub, 2009) to incorporate the potential for biofuels to substitute for petroleum products. Biofuels were also introduced into this GTAP Data Base (Taheripour et al., 2007). The modified data base includes data on production, consumption and trade of biofuels including grain based ethanol, sugarcane ethanol, and biodiesel from oilseeds, as well as data on biofuel by-products.
Energy Volume Data in GTAP 7 Data Base
- GTAP 7 Data Base: Chapter 11: Energy Data, Robert A. McDougall and Angel H. Aguiar. In Badri Narayanan G. and Terrie L. Walmsley, Editors (2008). Global Trade, Assistance, and Production: The GTAP 7 Data Base, Center for Global Trade Analysis, Purdue University.
- GTAP 6 Data Base: Chapter 17 - An Energy Data Base for GTAP, Robert A. McDougall and Huey-Lin Lee. In Dimaranan, Betina V., Editor (2006). Global Trade, Assistance, and Production: The GTAP 6 Data Base, Center for Global Trade Analysis, Purdue University.
- GTAP 5 Data Base: Chapter 17 - An Energy Data Base for GTAP, Jean-Marc Burniaux, Robert A. McDougall, and Truong P. Truong. In Dimaranan, Betina V. and Robert A. McDougall (2002). Global Trade, Assistance, and Production: The GTAP 5 Data Base, Center for Global Trade Analysis, Purdue University.
- GTAP-E FlexAgg Program for aggregating the GTAP-E Data Base for use with the GTAP-E Model.
- Why Previous Estimates of the Cost of Climate Mitigation are Likely Too Low by Beckman, Jayson and Thomas Hertel, GTAP Working Paper No. 54, 2009
- GTAP-Power Data Base
- GTAP-Power is an electricity-detailed extension of the GTAP Data Base.
- CO2 emissions data (GTAP 6 and 7 Data Base)
- Non-CO2 emissions data
Land cover/use data
- Towards An Integrated Land Use Database for Assessing the Potential for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation by Lee, Huey-Lin, Thomas Hertel, Brent Sohngen and Navin Ramankutty, GTAP Technical Paper No. 25, 2005
- Monfreda, C., N. Ramankutty, and J.A. Foley (2008), "Farming the Planet 2: The Geographic Distribution of Crop Areas and Yields in the Year 2000." Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 22, GB1022, doi:10.1029/2007GB002947.
Biofuels Data (GTAP 6 Data Base)
- Introducing Liquid Biofuels into the GTAP Data Base by Taheripour, Farzad, Dileep Birur, Thomas Hertel and Wally Tyner, GTAP Research Memorandum No. 11, 2007
- GTAP-E: An Energy-Environmental Version of the GTAP Model by Burniaux, Jean-Marc and Truong Truong
- GTAP-E: A Revised Energy-Environmental Version of the GTAP Model by McDougall, Robert and Alla Golub GTAP Research Memorandum No. 15, 2009.
- GDyn-E model
- Analysis of Climate Policies with GDyn-E by Golub, Alla GTAP Technical Paper No. 32.
This paper documents GDyn-E CGE model developed for analysis of climate policies in dynamic GTAP framework. Description of the modeling framework is followed by a presentation of a simple application focused on emission leakage associated with a unilateral GHG abatement policy, analysis and decomposition of the emission leakage, and sensitivity analysis.
- Analysis of Climate Policies with GDyn-E by Golub, Alla GTAP Technical Paper No. 32.
- Ramankutty, N., A.T. Evan, C. Monfreda, and J.A. Foley (2008), Farming the Planet 1: The Geographic Distribution of Global Agricultural Lands in the Year 2000. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 22, GB1003, doi:10.1029/2007GB002952.
- Taheripour, F., T.W. Hertel, W.E. Tyner,J.F. Beckman, D.K. Birur (2008) "Biofuels and their By-Products: Global Economic and Environmental Implications". Paper Presented at the 11th GTAP Conference, June 12-14 2008, Helsinki, Finland and at the 2008 American Agricultural Economics Association meeting in Orlando, Florida.
- Land Use in Computable General Equilibrium Models: An Overview
by Hertel, Thomas, Steven Rose and Richard Tol, GTAP Working Paper No. 39, 2008
- Global Agricultural Land Use Data for Climate Change Analysis
by Monfreda, Chad, Navin Ramankutty and Thomas Hertel, GTAP Working Paper No. 40, 2008
- Global Forestry Data for the Economic Modeling of Land Use
by Sohngen, Brent, Colleen Tennity, Marc Hnytka and Karl Meeusen, GTAP Working Paper No. 41, 2008
- An Integrated Global Land Use Data Base for CGE Analysis of Climate Policy Options
by Lee, Huey-Lin, Thomas Hertel, Steven Rose and Misak Avetisyan GTAP Working Paper No. 42, 2008
- Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data for Climate Change Economic Analysis
by Rose, Steven and Huey-Lin Lee GTAP Working Paper No. 43, 2008
- Modeling Land-use Related Greenhouse Gas Sources and Sinks and their Mitigation Potential
by Hertel, Thomas, Huey-Lin Lee, Steven Rose and Brent Sohngen, GTAP Working Paper No. 44, 2008
- Modeling the Competition for Land: Methods and Application to Climate Policy
by Sands, Ronald and Man-Keun Kim, GTAP Working Paper No. 45, 2008
- Biomass Energy and Competition for Land
by Reilly, John and Sergey Paltsev, GTAP Working Paper No. 46, 2008
- The Impact of Environmental and Climate Constraints on Global Food Supply
by Eickhout, Bas, Hans van Meijl, Andrzej Tabeau and Elke Stehfest, GTAP Working Paper No. 47, 2008
- Land Use Modeling in Recursively-Dynamic GTAP Framework
by Golub, Alla, Thomas Hertel and Brent Sohngen, GTAP Working Paper No. 48, 2008
- The Role of Forestry in Carbon Sequestration in General Equilibrium Models
by Sohngen, Brent, Alla Golub and Thomas Hertel, GTAP Working Paper No. 49, 2008
- KLUM@GTAP: Spatially-Explicit, Biophysical Land Use in a Computable General Equilibrium Model
by Ronneberger, Kerstin, Maria Berrittella, Francesco Bosello and Richard Tol, GTAP Working Paper No. 50, 2008
- Biofuels for all? Understanding the Global Impacts of Multinational Mandates
by Hertel, Thomas, Wally Tyner and Dileep Birur, GTAP Working Paper No. 51, 2008
- The Indirect Land Use Impacts of U.S. Biofuel Policies: The Importance of Acreage, Yield, and Bilateral Trade Responses
by Keeney, Roman and Thomas Hertel, GTAP Working Paper No. 52, 2008
- Impact of Biofuel Production on World Agricultural Markets: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis
by Birur, Dileep, Thomas Hertel and Wally Tyner, GTAP Working Paper No. 53, 2008
- The Opportunity Cost of Land Use and the Global Potential for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Agriculture and Forestry
by Golub, Alla, Thomas Hertel, Huey-Lin Lee, Steven Rose and Brent Sohngen, GTAP Working Paper No. 36, 2006